Speech Recognition: Difficult then, Common now

Speech recognition is almost as natural as breathing for us, but for a computer, it has taken more than half a century to solve this ‘problem’. Previously, the fundamental drawbacks to Speech Recognition were its poor accuracy, sensitivity to noise, over dependence on training to a particular voice and similar problems meant it worked in principle, but not in practice. This has been hugely improved now, it is often reaching the high nineties in percentage terms for several reasons: the general increase in the availability of affordable computing power, the advent of the cloud and the vast numbers of people now using it. Last year, IBM announced a major milestone in conversational speech recognition by building a system that achieved a 6.9 percent word error rate. Since then, it has continued to push the boundaries of speech recognition. Today, it reached a new industry record of 5.5 percent where these are measured on a very difficult speech recognition task: recorded conversations between humans discussing day-to-day topics like “buying a car.” This recorded corpus, known as the “SWITCHBOARD” corpus and has been used for over two decades to benchmark speech recognition systems.

The 21st century has seen many improvements in this field. In the 2000s DARPA sponsored two speech recognition programs: Effective Affordable Reusable Speech-to-Text (EARS) in 2002 and Global Autonomous Language Exploitation (GALE). The National Security Agency has made use of a type of speech recognition for keyword spotting since 2006. This technology allows analysts to search through large volumes of recorded conversations and isolate mentions of keywords. Google‘s first effort at Speech Recognition came in 2007 when its first product “GOOG-411” a telephone based directory service was released. Now, Google voice search is supported in over 30 languages and particularly in 2015, Google’s speech recognition reportedly experienced a dramatic performance jump of 49% through new techniques involving deep learning.

These advancements in Speech Recognition Technology had diversified its application. It has been implemented by many Healthcare and Military organizations:

Health care

Medical documentation

In the health care sector, Speech Recognition is implemented in front-end or back-end of the medical documentation process. In Front-end speech recognition, the provider dictates into a speech-recognition engine, the recognized words are displayed as they are spoken, and the dictator is responsible for editing and signing off on the document. Whereas, in Back-end or deferred speech recognition the provider dictates into a digital dictation system, the voice is recognized and a draft document is made out of it which is routed along with the original voice file to the editor, where the draft is edited and finalized. Deferred speech recognition is widely used in the industry currently.

Therapeutic use

Particularly in short-term-memory re-strengthening of brain AVM patients, the use of speech recognition software in conjunction with word processors has shown significant benefits. Further research needs to be conducted to determine cognitive benefits for individuals whose AVMs have been treated using radiologic techniques.

Military

High-performance fighter aircraft

Significant progress in the test and evaluation of Speech Recognition in fighter aircraft has taken place in the last decade. Of particular note have been the US program in speech recognition for the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)/F-16 aircraft (F-16 VISTA). In this program, speech recognizers have been operated successfully in fighter aircraft, with applications including setting radio frequencies, commanding an autopilot system, setting steer-point coordinates and weapons release parameters, and controlling flight display.

f

Also, speaker-independent systems are being developed and are under test for the F35 Lightning II (JSF). This system has produced word accuracy scores in excess of 98%.

Training air traffic controllers

Training for air traffic controllers (ATC) represents an excellent application for speech recognition systems. In the current scenario, many ATC training systems need a person to act as a “pseudo-pilot”, engaging in a voice dialog with the trainee controller, which simulates the dialog that the controller would have to conduct with pilots in a real ATC situation. Speech recognition techniques can eliminate the need for a person to act as pseudo-pilot, thus reducing training and support personnel. The USAF, USMC, US Army, US Navy, and FAA as well as a number of international ATC training organizations are currently using ATC simulators with speech recognition from different vendors.

 

Editor’s note: Original Sources


How to create Cloud Security

The cloud is not a physical thing, it is a series of servers designed to connect companies, families, and individuals and the cloud is growing. A recent survey consisting of over a thousand IT companies, 48% of which having employee populations over 1,000, reported remarkable statistics regarding cloud usage and cloud growth. 95% percent of the surveyed companies reported cloud usage a 2% increase since 2015. This use is separated into two overarching categories, Public and Private. Public clouds are accessible to all, you only need a computer and an internet connection, an example of such is the newly released Adobe Creative Cloud, which has transformed applications such as adobe acrobat from a box set into a monthly subscription service. Public clouds connect us with strangers and acquaintances alike. Private clouds are more internal, such as the servers that allow employees to share and receive documents without having to even send an email. Private Cloud and Public Clouds are on the rise, 72%, and 89% respectively with regards to use in the surveyed companies. On average respondents of the recent survey also stated that 32% of their data is within public clouds and 43% of their data is held within a private cloud.

1

So, with the rise of cloud usage how can we keep our data safe? To start on many public clouds, companies such as Google and Microsoft require you as the user to enter a code and a password when logging in from an unfamiliar computer. This makes you aware when someone is trying to enter your accounts through foreign computers. While this method is secure, hackers who are invested in accessing your files can find ways around these text messages. A second and more secure way of keeping your information safe within your clouds is a physical key, similar to the keys that protect your car or your home you can now purchase a physical key to protect your online information. These keys work extremely well, as without one there is no way to access your accounts, databases, and information, an example of such is the Yubikey a small lightweight device you can carry on your keychain along with the rest of your keys.

While there are many ways to protect your data in the cloud, there is also a responsibility on your part to secure your own data assets. To do this may be as simple as having separate passwords for your most secure information to protect from chain hacking, one of the most common methods hackers will try is to use the same password for every important platform you have. However, to be more secure you can secure accounts through multiple security points if you have the key to the building you still cannot access the safe.

The Department of Commerce itself is looking to transfer its cyber security operations to the cloud, as of July 11, 2017, the DOC posted a Request for Information(RFI) regarding a transfer of many of their cyber security operations to a cloud service provider. This will benefit the Department of Commerce, the cloud will offer more space to hold documents while taking up less physical space.

Your information is important and that is why you should take the steps to secure it.

Editor’s note: Original Sources


http://time.com/4841014/cloud-data-security-cybersecurity-hackers/

http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/whos-responsible-protecting-patient-data-cloud

https://www.fedscoop.com/commerce-wants-move-cybersecurity-cloud/

http://www.rightscale.com/blog/cloud-industry-insights/cloud-computing-trends-2017-state-cloud-survey

The New Wave of Identification is Finally Here

Biometrics has a wide array of potential usages, which is why different agencies and governments are developing the software in order to provide more efficient and secure identification processes.

US Military

The United States military is in the beginning phases of utilizing behavioral biometric software in order for soldiers and other military personnel to access technology. What used to be the territory of a common access key card or passcode is now being modified to be individualized, greatly reducing the risk of threat. This behavioral technology goes further than a thumbprint or an iris scan. It analyzes the way a soldier walks, or the way a technician types on a keyboard and uses a mouse. The same systems somebody is using is constantly collecting data on them. This continuous proof of presence will deliver a cyber security solution that promptly recognizes breaches, can assist in forensic investigations, and guarantees regulatory compliance.

dAirport Security

Biometrics have started to become the long-awaited answer for numerous security dilemmas in the United States. U.S. Customs and Border Protection has begun implementing biometric software at airports nationwide. Following a long overdue mandate (15 years), new biometrics will solve the difficulty of scanning the identity of thousands of departing foreign visitors every day. The combination of cloud computing and the latest facial recognition technology will turn a process from about two minutes into only a couple of seconds, countering the rise in foreign travel into the US.

Border Security

The State Department is also developing biometric technology to enhance coordination on border security and migration activities on the US-Mexico border. According to a January report out of the Congressional Research Service, The U.S. and Mexican governments in 2015 actually approved a $75 million Mérida program to help Mexico “develop an automated biometrics system to help agencies collect and share information on criminals and migrants.” This is perhaps an alternative to the estimated $12 billion dollars it would take to build a border wall, according to Senate leader Mitch McConnell.

 

Editor’s note: Original Source ‘Fedscoop’, ‘Defenseone’


 

Patrick Tucker. “The Future of Military IT: Gait Biometrics, Software Nets, and Photon Communicators”

Defenseone. N.p.15 June. 2017, Web. 18 July. 2017

FedScoop. “Military testing behavioral ID technology that would replace CAC card”

FedScoop. N.p. 6 July. 2017, Web. 18 July. 2017.